USING YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF ONLINE JOURNALISM, DISCUSS THE CONCEPT OF “ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALISM.” GROUP 2

DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA.

GROUP TWO

COURSE CODE: MCOM 414
COURSE TITLE: ONLINE JOURNALISM

GROUP ASSIGNMENT: USING YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF ONLINE JOURNALISM, DISCUSS THE CONCEPT OF “ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALISM.”

LECTURER: MALLAM MUHAMMAD HASHIM SULEIMAN

DATE:    JULY, 2016
GROUP MEMBERS
ANAMI SHALHOMA                         U12MM1060
SAMAILA YUNUSA DANMAIRO     U13MM2049
HABIB SHU`AIBU                             U12MM1007
DAUDA SENOCK WATSUM            U10MM1151
SHITTU ADULTAFAH                      U13MM2058
SODIJO ABOSEDE  MARTHA         U12MM1146
TOLOGBONSE ITUNU VICTORIA   U12MM1074
SULEIMAN OHUNENE ZAINAB U12MM1094
SANI RACHAEL OJOMA                 U12MM1095
SAMUEL MERCY                             U12MM1011
HAJARA  SANI                                 U12MM1044
UMAR JAMILU                                 U13MM2046
TIJANI FATIMAT U13MM2065
GLORIA SWAM U13MM2047
SULEIMAN AISHA U12MM1146
SHEHU SUWAIBA DALHATU U12MM1070
SANI ISLAMIAT OKIKIOLA U13MM2024
SAMBO HADIZA SANI U13MM2060
TUKUR MUHAMMED ALMAJIRI U13MM2002
TIJANI AMINA AHMAD U12MM1079
SULEIMAN AMAR U12MM1110
SULEIMAN NURA U12MM1114
TIJANI JAMILA NASIR U13MM2071
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
THE SEVEN STEP TO CREATE ONLINE CONTENT
CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEUR JOURNALISM
ONLINE JOURNALISTS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR PROFIT MAXIMIZATION
THE FOUR METHODOLOGIES AN ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALIST CAN CREATE A MARKET NICHE 
BUSINESS MODELS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALISM
THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH IN THIS TYPE OF JOURNALISM
THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF ENTREPRENEUR JOURNASLISM
IMPORTANCES OR BENEFITS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALSAM
WHAT IS UNIQUE ABOUT ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN JOURNALISM

INTRODUCTION
Today, journalism and entrepreneurrship are currently venturing into an important relationship especially on the internet, freelancers are making significant contribution to greater media pluralism as conventional media are often not independent. And acccording Arens et al (2011:404), “the internet is a whole new medium for communication, and many advertising people are still learning how to use it. This is an important issue since web users are both savvy and sketical as well as influential.” Media owners have little interest in independent reporting since they exploit their newspapers and broadcasting channels for political or economic interest. Due to this, journalist have been called to be self-employed. Although, “entrepreneurial Journalism”encourage journalists to act in an economic sense, redefine their profession through innovation and to explore new opportunities for making a living  (Nedeljkovic et al, 2014 ). Hence, entrepreneur journalists ideal focus is towards profit maximazation of media contents and the medium.
Before  discussing entrepreneur journalism, lets look at what the following concepts mean : online, journalism, online journalism and entrepreneur.
According to Ward (2003), online is the, “generic term often used loosely to describe digital information access, retrieval or dissemination.” Ward added that the “digital break down all information.” These can be “data, text, graphics, audio, still pictures or video converted into sequence of numbers (digital), transports it by wire, cable, or broadcast frequency to a distination and then re-assembles it back into its original form” via the internet components (world wide web and electronic mail).
According to Ganiyu (2004), Journalism  is defined as “the job of gathering, writing, and dissemination of news and views about the society through the means of the mass media (newspapers, magazines, radio, television, film, books and the new media i.e the internet.”  to look at journalism in a more extended sphere, Ganiyu and Akinreti ( ) stated that, the term journalism, “is the job of gathering, writing, processing and dissemination of news and views about the society through the mass media. The difference between the former definition is “processing” because not all journalists are train in gathering, or writing reports generally. 
Online journalism according to Dueze (2003), is “seen as jjournalism as it is produced more or less exclusively for the World Wide Web (as the graphic interface of the internet). he went on to say that, “online journalist has to make decisions as to which media format or formats best convey a certain story (multimediality), consider options for public to respond, interact or even customize certain stories (interactivity), and think about ways to connect the story to other stories, arrchives, resources and so forth through  hyperlinks (hypertextuality).”
As The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics put it, “an entrepreneur is someone who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process of discovering new ways of combining resources.”
Also, according to Roig et al, “entrepreneurrship is an essential element for economic progress … by identifying, assessing, and exploiting business opportunities; creating new firms and/or renewing existing ones by making them more dynamic; and by driving the economy forward- through innovation, competence, job creation and by generally improving the wellbeing of the society.”
Journalists must be aware that people do not really have all the luxury of time to read a website. What they do, is just scan for the information presented, so, it must be concise and comprehensive (Arens et al, 2011).

CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEUR JOURNALISM
Entrepreneurial journalism describes a field of media where journalism is the underlying discipline upon which to create content –based business and services that can make money, rather than the popular view of journalism as a type of objective professional public service to be provided to the citizenry. Entrepreneurial journalism is not about preserving old ways of thinking or finding ways to protect market share. Rather it is about adapting, leveraging new technologies and trends as well as shaping the future of journalism (Bathke, 2010).
Entrepreneurial journalism offers a chance to think of content creation in business term as it gains popularity. This field also has the potential to change the way that we find and consume information and change our world in the process.
In a nutshell, entrepreneurial journalism is owning a business not necessarily in terms of stock ownership but going through a process and achieving an outcome; earning to respond to ambiguity and change; innovation- that is, putting things in different ways to achieve different results; and focusing on the business.
However, entrepreneurial journalism involves starting something you care about, that is something you are very passionate about; getting it online quickly; not waiting for the website to be perfect for you to have all the answers and, improving as you go; and improving as you go.
In today`s digital world, journalism is gaining completely new role and dimension. Although online publishing can influence the reduction of the circulation of printed editions, the internet is giving a new chance to all journalists, because it is the best friend to journalistic entrepreneurship and online journalism are closely connected to online marketing.
The biggest advantage of the internet is that every written and published article is “living” online as long as the website itself exist. It does not “live” only is one issue for one day; it does not get thrown away after reading. An online article is publically available everyday and depending on how it was written and on the structure of the website a once written article for which two or three hours were spent can be read 100 times a day, every day, and 365 days a year. That is, the main potential of the internet and the starting point of entrepreneurial journalism.

ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALISTS AS A PROFIT MAXIMIZER
Journalists channels their articles or writing with the focus of making profits and these depends on: the subject area the he or she writes on; and whether the journalist is a good seller. The reporters here charges for their services and advertising space (Nedeljkovic et al, 2014).  He went ahead to stressed that, “if a journalistic entrepreneur running a website and wants to monetize it, they will sonner be in a position to sell advertyising space, a part of the website, a part of the text, a link in the text, etc.” hence online journalists becomes “salesperson because they will have to negotiate the price.” Entrepreneurial journalism precede just writing. With good name and serious website with a clear target group can led to wining for internet market.

THE FOUR MOST IMPORTANT METHODOLOGY AN ENTREPRENEUR JOURNALIST CAN CREATE A MARKET NICHE 
As it is said, “a good basis is the key to success.” To create a market niche, entrepreneur journalists must engage in supply analysis, demand analysis, competition analysis and profitability calculation through a detail research. 
a. SUPPLY ANALYSIS: Acccording to Nedejlkovic et al (2014:25), “The more potential topics, services, and products about which articles can be written, the greater the chances for success of the journalistic undertaking.” There are alot of internet websites owned by entrepreneurs who have started selling products. However, the supply analysis can be subject to Google search of keywords to locate products and services supply by others which entrepreneur journalists can write about.

b. DEMAND ANALYSIS: Concrete tool such as “Googkle Keyword Planner” which can help the journalistic entrepreneur to analyse the demand for a product, services, internet areas and the “Google Trends” presents seasonal searches of specific keywords. The ability of an entrepreneurial journalist to combine both tools will lead them to obtaining very good and useful information about demand on the internet. Therefore, starting an online project without checking how demanded a certain topic is, may result to crash of entrepreneurial journalists internet websites (Nedejlkovic, 2014).
c. COMPETITION ANALYSIS: This is similar to supply analysis although it focuses on websites which could be a competition recognition.entrepreneurial journalist should under take a thorough study of competitors and find out whether there is a website with similar ideas with thiers. Also, they should bear in mind that other phrases and keyword from that subject area which audience uses to search for bloggers or websites. however, in today global world it is very difficult to find an area without competition and for that reason the job can be localiozed to specific countries(Nedejlkovic, 2014).
d. PROFITTABILITY CALCUULATE: here, the profit aspect relies on the subject area an entrepreneur journalist is writing on. hence, it is very important to choose a profitable market needs.
To sum it up, Nedeljkovic stated that, “a good supply, large demand, low competition and good profitability in  the subject area represent the main guidelines for the choice of a suitable market niche.”

BUSINESS MODELS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALISM
The three main business models among others  which can lean to profit in addition to the previous market analysis. These are as follows:
i. sales of advertising space
ii. percentage from concrete actions or visitors
ii. the freemium model
1. SALES OF ADVERTISING SPACE: in entrepreneur jounalism things that can be sold includes a link in the text; a banner in the text, a banner in a part of the websites, and a  banner in the background of the websites. so which never space is choosen is usually sold for a time period but there is also the option of charging by display, based on the statistic of the numbers of displays.
2. PERCENTAGE FROM CONCRETE ACTIONS OF VISITORS: percentage from concrete actions from visitors is more demanding but fair profit compared to the sales of advertising space because the website is earning from the concrete actions of one visitors.the actions include phone calls, sending an email or the purchse of a product the text is about. this business model can provide long time profit which can be larger compare to the sales of advertising space .
3. THE FREEMIUM BUSINESS MODEL:The freemium business model means that a part of the content or services on the websites is free whereas more options, content or services are charged.

THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH IN THIS TYPE OF JOURNALISM
According to Forbes Magazine, there is a rise of entrepreneurial journalists in a world seeking credible voices especially the digital publishing and social media have turned the economics of journalism upside down as a result of contents which is everywhere, produced by everyone, not just those who own the presses or control the airwaves or cables. The Forbes Magazine has many entrepreneurial journalists of 1,000 contributing to news brands around the world as freelancers. This includes writers from the most elite universities, best-selling book authors, management consultants, business leaders and other expertise for print, broadcast or internet consumers. What they need to do is just to keep a Google doc open in a tab on their chrome browser for updates.
Journalists goes into entrepreneur journalism today because of the relevancy it offers in the field. George Anders, stated that “readers benefit by getting coverage that is uniquely relevant to their interests, instead of being at the mercy of a publication mistaken guesses.” However, other importance is that:
There are new ideas influencing the older media entities to evolve for example, in the middle of 2010, a brilliant experimental journalism site called true/slant was purchased by Forbes.
Start ups create excitement and pioneer new forms of media: the poynter promise prize was one of the first of what will likely be several competition style idea gathering efforts to bring some of the most pioneering ideas in entrepreneurial journalism to the attention of many. As more of these startup-style ideas enter into the discussions about the future of journalism, they will unlock new forms of content creation and new business models that the entire industry will eventually look towards.
Overlaps with big social media trends  such as content curation, that is, one of the biggest trends that is already shaping the future  of marketing is the focus on content curation as a way to provide  value to customers and share an expertise without necessarily creating content.

THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF ENTREPRENEUR JOURNASLISM
There are three core elements of entrepreneurial journalism. that is, three main requirements in order to iniate and facilitate the work of online journalists and computer assisted rdeporters. These are:
1. basics of online journalism
2. internet entrepreneurship and
3. website production.
However, the basics of online journalism that can helps helps in creating good content for entrepreneurial journalists comprises the following seven steps: title or titleblock; composition and use of keywords in the text; overview and easy text scanning; multimedia text editing; links in the text and linking technique; tags or keywords; and text optimization

IMPORTANCES OR BENEFITS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL JOURNALSAM 
According to David Westphal, entrepreneurial skills foster the needed cultural change in the media industry: “It’s important because the news culture of the last few decades has been anti-entrepreneurial. So these courses amount to almost an antidote for long established cultures.” Hence, entrepreneurial attitude is needed to shape the future of an industry in transformation. 
Also, it’s essential in the new digital landscape for journalists to deeply understand the business and economics of journalism. This is an imperative cultural change that we believe professionals should embrace in order to confront the disruption of the industry and foster change and innovation. Another related issue mentioned several times is that  journalists working not only as individual entrepreneurs, but for journalists working in established media organizations or established startups. 
Speaking in the same vein, Leslie Walker explains, 
“News media business models have been massively disrupted, and must be reinvented for the digital age. Now more than ever journalism students need greater understanding of the business side of media and news. Even if they don’t start their own news ventures, tomorrow’s graduates likely will be involved in intrapreneurial initiatives for media companies”. 
Journalists need the skills to exploit the opportunities arising from the digital landscape and the low barriers to entry. James Breiner examines an important concept saying, opportunities that arise for entrepreneurs in the digital landscape are not only business opportunities but also journalistic opportunities: “Journalists have an opportunity to fill the gaps left by traditional media, which are cutting staff and coverage. The business and journalistic opportunity offered is to identify niches of reader interest not being adequately served by mass media now, and there are many such as environment, education, local business, gender, local culture and language, local data, cultural coverage of which the list is virtually infinite. This opportunity aims to create a community that will be attractive to both users of the community and those who want to reach that community. Beyond advertising, other possibilities for monetizing a community are direct sales of products, sale of specialized information, consulting in communication, and membership (members will often pay much more than subscribers), events and foundations among others. The course is necessary because most journalists who launch a product on the web lack basic business skills, such as identifying a target audience, creating marketing to attract the target audience, developing various ways to monetize the attention on the web and so on”. 
Furthermore, from a research conducted, there are two categories of reasons for the establishment of entrepreneurial journalism as identified by Nedeljkovic et al (2014).
Firstly, the entrepreneurial skills prepare students to create their own jobs. This is particularly relevant in a context of massive layoffs in the industry and shrinking media operations. Tim McGuire accentuated the idea of the changing labor market: “Most of the jobs they will occupy during their career don’t exist right now.” 
Secondly, another category said that entrepreneurial skills are also essential for professionals to work in transforming media companies and new media startups that already require journalists to participate in intrapreneurial projects and embrace an entrepreneurial mindset. 
Whether entrepreneurship is an activity related exclusively to new venture creation or within existing firms is a common topic in academic entrepreneurship literature. What was found was that a majority of the lecturers tend to address both approaches to entrepreneurship. Hence, results show a conception of entrepreneurship more focused on creating and exploiting opportunities, regardless of the context where this activity takes place ( Nedejkovic, 2014).
Moreso, unlike the traditional journalism, entrepreneurial journalism has unique characteristics. Lecturers in entrepreneurial journalism identify these unique characteristics and treat them as important issues to address, and that should no longer be used as a justification to build a wall between the business and editorial sides of the journalistic work. In fact, lecturers and entrepreneurial journalists tend to argue that these barriers were detrimental for the industry and got journalists disengaged from their audience.
According to Nedeljkovic et al (2014) in their book, “Entrepreneurial Journalism Handbook”, online journalists should bear in mind that with the transfer to web 2.0 technologies, there were huge changes in the nature of journalism itself unlike the usual one-way communication flow but today the border between journalist and the audience are fading leading to two-way communication. Audience too have become content creators and distributors.

WHAT IS UNIQUE ABOUT ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN JOURNALISM
On website design and development journalists` role is to create a “high quality product for readers” as a writer and editor, develops a business project and ensure its “sustainability and profitability” (Nedejlkovic et al, 2014).
However, before you start creating your website, its very vital that you “take a free online course about creating entrepreneurial project, create a scheme of your business model, and create a basic business plan”, Nedejlkovic et al said.
Toughill, stated that entrepreneurship journalism is unique because, “Journalists operate with a sense of mission, and journalism is a service that is broadly considered a public good essential to democracy. In other words, there are externalities involved that are not present in many other industries. may be to explore the nexus of how that sense of mission is supported by a business model, when the two are in conflict and mechanisms for resolving that tension.” 

CONCLUSION
This work, though may have some short comings, should provide a limelight for those who are interested to engage or delve into entrepreneurial journalism especially mass communication students and practioners though the knowledge gathered in the cause of their study. This is also helpful today due to lack of job in the country. So, journalists can survive in the market and earn money from their skills exhibited and personal website, blogs or twitter. According to Veciana, “the entrepreneurial roles implies the discovery, assessment and exploitation of opportunities,” that is, “new products, services or production processes; new strategies and organizational forms and new markets for products and inputs that did not previously exist.” 

REFERENCE:
Ganiyu and Akinreti (2011). Secrets of Online and Multimedia Journalism. A manual 
for onliine and Multimedia journalism Practice in Africa. Emgee Publishing Limited, Lagos.
Nedeljkovic et al, (2014). Entrepreneurial Journalism Handbook. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Belgrade. South East Europe, Sofia. benjaminbathke.com
Russell S. Sobel.  The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics Entrepreneurship. 2nd edition.  West Virginia University. http:// econlib.org

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